Chapter 5: Oxygenic compounds (C5318094)

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“So is Baptism in the Holy Spirit subsequent to conversion, or not?” Emily asked.

“Paul’s amazement you can be baptized and not receive the Holy Spirit (Acts 19:3) shows that persons water baptized should have the Holy Spirit,” Mandy replied, “However, in Acts 19:3, despite the persons were baptized in water, it was only until the laying of hands that the Spirit came upon them. But then, you have Cornelius who had the infilling of the Spirit before baptism.”

“I can’t see a normative for precede, proceed, or at,” Victoria commented, “But let the Pentecostal bad girl believe whatever she wants .”

Given phenol is a benzene with an alcohol group attached, remember first that benzene is electron withdrawing [apart from when attached to itself, discussed ].

However, when an alcohol is attached to benzene [called phenol]; the polarity of the [latex]-OH[/latex] bond is increased, which increases acidity. In fact, it has a [latex]pK_{a}[/latex] between 10-12, and therefore more acidic than water.

For example, a double bond between the alpha and beta carbons of a carbonyl, is a conjugated system.

Normally, if an electrophile (electron lover) is added to an alkene, by Markovnikov’s rule, the electrophile will add on the carbon with least alkyl substituents [discussed ]. However, in the just said conjugated system, the electrophile may add to the carbonyl oxygen.

Another example, in the just said conjugated system, a nucleophile (likes to donate electrons) may add directly to the beta carbon, instead of adding to the carbonyl carbon [which is partially positive], as expected.

[img]conjugated-system-adding-anti-Markovnikovs.png[/img]

The simplest carboxylic acids include formic acid ([latex]H-COOH[/latex]), acetic acid ([latex]\ce{CH3-COOH}[/latex]) and benzoic acid ([latex]Benzene-COOH[/latex]).
The conjugate base of acetic acid, is the acetate ion, which can be abbreviated as [latex]OAc^-[/latex].
For instance, it is less acidic than the hydronium ion [latex]\ce{H3O^+}[/latex], having a positive [latex]pK_{a}[/latex], compared with hydronium which has a negative [latex]pK_{a}[/latex] [specifically, -1.74].



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