Chapter 1: Covalent bonding (C8165750)

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“For example, carbon in methane [latex]CH_{4}[/latex] has 4 sigma bonds, and no lone pairs,” Em said, “Thus, the hybrid orbitals of carbon in methane is [latex]s^{1}p^{3}[/latex], or rewriting, [latex]sp^{3}[/latex].”
“Another example, carbon in ethene [latex]C_{2}H_{4}[/latex] has 3 sigma bonds [one bond is a pi bond, which is not counted], and no lone pairs,” Em said, “Thus, the hybrid orbitals of carbon in ethene is, [latex]sp^2[/latex].”
For example, the oxygen in water [latex]\ce{H2O}[/latex] has an [latex]sp^3[/latex] hybrid, but rather than the expected [latex]109.5^{\circ}[/latex], water is bent at a lower angle of [latex]104.5^{\circ}[/latex].


Another example, ammonia has a lone pair, and hence rather than the expected [latex]109.5^{\circ}[/latex], has a lower angle of [latex]107.8^{\circ}[/latex].


“For example, even though benzene is often drawn theoretically as the first 2, it exists as neither,” Mandy says, “so it is often drawn as the last structure.”


“For example, benzene has one pi bond from each of the 6 carbons, adding up to 6 pi bonds,” Mandy said, “thereby satisfying Huckel’s rule with [latex]n=1[/latex].”
For example, a structural isomer of pentan-1-ol is pentan-2-ol.

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Pre-med science (MED5118352)


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